• QED Похожие

    2990 РУБ.

  • QED Похожие

    2490 РУБ.

  • QED Похожие

    3990 РУБ.

  • Книга "Non-Relativistic QED Theory of the van der Waals Dispersion Interaction".
    Похожие

    9452 РУБ.

  • Похожие

    3299.91 РУБ.

  • Похожие

    494.33 РУБ.

  • Quantum electrodynamics is an essential building block and an integral part of the gauge theory of unified electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, the so-called standard model. Its failure or breakdown at some level would have a most profound impact on the theoretical foundations of elementary particle physics as a whole. Thus the validity of QED has been the subject of intense experimental tests over more than 40 years of its history. This volume presents an up-to-date review of high precision experimental tests of QED together with comprehensive discussion of required theoretical work.
    Похожие

    8264 РУБ.

  • Похожие

    2804.92 РУБ.

  • In the 1930s, physics was in a crisis. There appeared to be no way to reconcile the new theory of quantum mechanics with Einstein's theory of relativity. Several approaches had been tried and had failed. In the post-World War II period, four eminent physicists rose to the challenge and developed a calculable version of quantum electrodynamics (QED), probably the most successful theory in physics. This formulation of QED was pioneered by Freeman Dyson, Richard Feynman, Julian Schwinger, and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, three of whom won the Nobel Prize for their work. In this book, physicist and historian Silvan Schweber tells the story of these four physicists, blending discussions of their scientific work with fascinating biographical sketches. Setting the achievements of these four men in context, Schweber begins with an account of the early work done by physicists such as Dirac and Jordan, and describes the gathering of eminent theorists at Shelter Island in 1947, the meeting that heralded the new era of QED. The rest of his narrative comprises individual biographies of the four physicists, discussions of their major contributions, and the story of the scientific community in which they worked. Throughout, Schweber draws on his technical expertise to offer a lively and lucid explanation of how this theory was finally established as the appropriate way to describe the atomic and subatomic realms.
    Похожие

    8214 РУБ.

  • Bachelor Thesis from the year 2011 in the subject Mathematics - Miscellaneous, grade: 1,0, Technical University of Munich, language: English, abstract: This thesis is motivated by questions arising in the eld of Mathematical Quantum Electrodynamics, the attempt of a proper mathematical description of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). QED is the relativistic quantum eld theory of electrodynamics, which uni es Quantum Mechanics and Special Relativity in a consistent manner. From the mathematical point of view, QED is an abelian gauge theory with the symmetry group U(1) (phase factors) and the gauge eld mediating the interaction between the charged spin-1/2 elds is the electromagnetic eld. Aim of this thesis is the renormalization of the regularized relativistic electron positron eld together with a Coulomb interaction. The idea of the renormalization procedure is to compare the normal-ordered Hamiltonian with the original one. Choosing a conventional normal ordering, the change in Hamiltonian is given by a quadratic term. The choice of a suitable normal ordering amounts in a non-perturbative rede nition of the electron/positron states. This allows for the interpretation of change in the Hamiltonian as a certain renormalization. The proper interpretation of this renormalization and the various implications are discussed at the end.
    Похожие

    1539 РУБ.

  • Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation from the year 2007 in the subject Physics - Nuclear Physics, Molecular Physics, Solid State Physics, grade: 1,0, University of Frankfurt (Main) (Institut für Kernphysik), language: English, abstract: Quarks sind die elementaren Bestandteile, aus denen Hadronen (Baryonen und Mesonen) aufgebaut sind. Zusammen mit den Leptonen und den Eichbosonen gelten sie heute als die fundamentalen Bausteine, aus denen alle Materie aufgebaut ist. Im Standardmodell der Teilchenphysik werden diese Ergebnisse zusammengefasst. Es gibt sechs verschiedene Quark-Arten (flavours): up, down, strange, charm, bottom und top. In der Natur kommen keine isolierten Quarks vor, sondern nur Kombinationen aus z.B. einem Quark-Antiquark Paar (Meson) oder aus drei Quarks (Baryon). Die Quantenchromodynamik (QCD) beschreibt die starke Wechselwirkung zwischen Quarks und Gluonen. Quarks bauen unter anderem Protonen und Neutronen auf. Gluonen vermitteln die Wechselwirkung zwischen den Quarks. Konzeptionell ist die QCD an die Quantenelektrodynamik (QED) angelehnt, die die Wechselwirkung elektrisch geladener Teilchen (z.B. Elektron oder Positron) durch den Austausch von Photonen beschreibt. Analog wirkt die Kraft, die durch den Austausch von Gluonen beschrieben wird, zwischen Teilchen, die eine Farbladung (rot, grün, blau) tragen. Im Vergleich zur QED, wo das Photon neutral ist, trägt das Gluon selbst Farbe und wechselwirkt daher mit anderen Gluonen. Bei kleinen Quarkabständen und hohen E...
    Похожие

    7152 РУБ.

  • We investigate a dual formulation of quantum electrodynamics (QED) on the lattice with finite chemical potential. This formulation replaces the conventional degrees of freedom, which are defined on the sites and links of the lattice, by loops and plaquettes on the lattice. These new variables are the dual degrees of freedom. When using the conventional variables, the partition function is an integral over Boltzmann factors, which are complex if the chemical potential is different from zero. Thus, they cannot be employed as a probability weight in a Monte Carlo simulation. But if one uses appropriate dual variables, then the partition function turns into an infinite sum over real quantities, also in the case of a non-trivial chemical potential. We show that all summands are even strictly positive if we restrict ourselves to a certain class of loops. Now, each term of this partition sum can be interpreted as a probability weight for the corresponding dual configuration of loops and plaquettes. This allows us to run a Monte Carlo simulation and to explore various observables for the case of a finite chemical potential.
    Похожие

    6064 РУБ.

  • This book provides an understanding of the theoretical foundations for the calculation of electromagnetic processes. Photon production processes are particularly important in astrophysics, since almost all of our knowledge of distant astronomical objects comes from the detection of radiation from these sources. Further, the conditions therein are extremely varied and a wide variety of naturally occurring electromagnetic phenomena can be described by limiting forms of the basic theory. The first chapter reviews some basic principles that are the underpinnings for a general description of electromagnetic phenomena, such as special relativity and, especially, relativistic covariance. Classical and quantum electrodynamics (QED) are then formulated in the next two chapters, followed by applications to three basic processes (Coulomb scattering, Compton scattering, and bremsstrahlung). These processes are related to other phenomena, such as pair production, and the comparisons are discussed. A unique feature of the book is its thorough discussion of the nonrelativistic limit of QED, which is simpler than the relativistic theory in its formulation and applications. The methods of the relativistic theory are introduced and applied through the use of notions of covariance, to provide a shorter path to the more general theory. The book will be useful for graduate students working in astrophysics and in certain areas of particle physics.
    Похожие

    9427 РУБ.

  • This book is the natural follow-on of the discussion about Quantum Electro Dynamics (QED), begun with my former manual ''Alkali Atomic spectra'', mainly concerning with the description of the atom structure. The Theory of Fields, and then the whole Standard Model, concern particles in relativistic motion. There an atom is ionized and nuclei and particles are brought to collide at relativistic energies. In order to investigate the dynamics an appropriate model is needed. Particles are represented as fields and those fields are themselves quantized as for second quantization. The definition of the Electro-Weak theory and the concept of symmetry breaking are just the prelude to all the physics behind Supersymmetry and Gravitation, and eventually to the Grand Unification Theories (GUT).
    Похожие

    5764 РУБ.

  • The Reviews in Computational Chemistry series brings together leading authorities in the field to teach the newcomer and update the expert on topics centered on molecular modeling, such as computer-assisted molecular design (CAMD), quantum chemistry, molecular mechanics and dynamics, and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). This volume, like those prior to it, features chapters by experts in various fields of computational chemistry. Topics in Volume 29 include: Noncovalent Interactions in Density-Functional Theory Long-Range Inter-Particle Interactions: Insights from Molecular Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) Theory Efficient Transition-State Modeling using Molecular Mechanics Force Fields for the Everyday Chemist Machine Learning in Materials Science: Recent Progress and Emerging Applications Discovering New Materials via a priori Crystal Structure Prediction Introduction to Maximally Localized Wannier Functions Methods for a Rapid and Automated Description of Proteins: Protein Structure, Protein Similarity, and Protein Folding
    Похожие

    14981.46 РУБ.